Weights and Measures

or

Why We Need The Metric System

Volume
UNIT NAME U.S. LIQUID (wine) U.S. DRY (corn) IMPERIAL
minim 61.6115 microliters 59.1938 microliters
fluid scruple 20 minims (1.183876 mL)
fluid dram (drachm) 60 minims (3.69669 mL) 3 fluid scruples (3.55163 mL)
teaspoon 80 minims (4.92892 mL)
tablespoon 3 teaspoons (14.78676 mL)
fluid ounce 2 tablespoons (29.5735 mL) 8 fluid drams (28.4131 mL)
gill (noggin, liquid quartern) 4 fluid ounces (118.294 mL) 5 fluid ounces (142.065 mL)
cup 2 gills (236.558 mL)
pint 2 cups (473.177 mL) 550.611 mL* 4 liquid quarterns* (568.261 mL)
quart 2 pints (0.946353 L) 2 pints (1.10122 L) 2 pints (1.13652 L)
pottle (dry quartern) 2 quarts (2.27304 L)
gallon 4 quarts (3.78541 L) 4 quarts (4.40488 L) 2 pottles (4.54609 L)
peck 8 quarts (8.80977 L) 4 dry quarterns (9.09217 L)
bushel 4 pecks (35.2391 L) 4 pecks (36.3687 L)
firkin† 9 gallons (34.0687 L) 9 gallons (40.9148 L)
kilderkin 2 firkins (81.8296 L)
bag 3 bushels (109.106 L)
barrel 31.5 gallons (119.24 L) 105 quarts (115.627 L) 2 kilderkins (163.659 L)
petroleum barrel 42 gallons (158.987 L)
hogshead 7 firkins or 2 barrels
seam 8 bushels (290.95 L)
puncheon (tertian) 84 gallons (317.97459 L) 70 gallons (318.2263 L)
tun 4 hogsheads (953.924 L)
last 10 seams (2909.5 L)
*) So a pint is not, in fact, a pound the world around.
†) Not to be confused with the wine firkin, which was another name for a puncheon.

LENGTH
1.905 centimeters makes1 digit
2.54 centimeters makes1 inch
2.554 centimeters makes1 Scots inch
3 digits makes1 nail
3 inches makes1 palm
4 inches makes1 hand
2 palms makes1 shaftment
6.5 inches also makes1 shaftment
7.92 inches makes1 Gunter's link
3 palms makes1 span
12 inches makes1 foot or Ramden's link
12.000024 inches makes1 U.S. Survey foot
1.5 feet or Ramden's links makes1 cubit
2.25 feet or Ramden's links makes1 Dutch ell
2.5 feet or Ramden's links makes1 pace
30.68 inches makes1 Viennese elle
3 feet or Ramden's links makes1 yard
37 Scots inches makes1 Scots ell
3.75 feet or Ramden's links makes1 British ell
2 yards makes1 fathom
5.5 yards makes1 rod, perch, or pole
4 rods makes1 Gunter's chain (100 links)
100 feet or Ramden's links makes1 Ramden's chain
120 yards makes1 skien
10 Gunter's chains makes1 furlong
8 furlongs makes1 statute mile
6076.12 feet makes1 nautical mile
6080 feet makes1 British nautical mile
3 of any kind of mile makes1 of the same kind of league

Differences are in boldface
WEIGHT, avoirdupois, short WEIGHT, avoirdupois, long WEIGHT, apothecary/troy
64.7989 milligrams weigh 1 grain
20 grains = 1 scruple
24 grains = 1 pennyweight
27.3438 grains = 1 dram 60 grains = 1 dram
7.95672 drams mass 1 poundal
16 drams = 1 ounce 8 drams = 1 ounce
8 ounces = 1 mark
16 ounces = 1 pound 12 ounces = 1 pound
7 pounds = 1 clove
2 cloves = 1 stone
25 pounds = 1 quarter 28 pounds = 2 stone = 1 quarter
32.174 pounds mass 1 slug or geepound
100 pounds = 1 cental or hundredweight 4 quarters = 1 hundredweight
18 stone = 1 wey
5 centals/hundredweights = 1 U.S. quarter
4 quarters = 1 ton 20 hundredweights = 1 ton
As a side note, 1 "ton" of air conditioning capacity is 12000 BTU/hour.  (So named because that's how much heat it takes to melt one U.S. short ton of ice at 32° Fahrenheit over a 24 hour period.)


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